– The diagnosis of louse infestation should be carried out with the help of a louse comb, which is 4-5 times more effective in finding a louse than direct visual examination and twice as fast

РA person should be considered as infested with lice only if a living louse was found 

– If only eggs are found on the hair, the examination with the comb should be continued for several days. If living lice are not found, the person should be considered as the one with signs of previous infestations and remedies such as hair conditioners should be used to remove the nits

– Only anti-louse products, which have been specifically approved by the Ministry of Health, should be used. It is necessary to carefully read and follow the instructions for use. It is particularly important to note the starting time and to treat the hair for the exact period specified in the instructions.When indicated a second treatment should be conducted 8-10 days after the first treatment (even if a second treatment after 7 days is recommended). It should be taken into consideration that between the two treatments the child might be still infested with lice hatching from eggs, which the product did not succeed in killing. Use of the louse comb immediately after the treatment and after each shampooing of the hair, during the 8-10 days following the beginning of the treatment, could increase the efficacy of a anti-louse product

РIn cases where a member of the family is found to be infested, all other family members should be examined, but only those infested should be treated.  The treatments should take place simultaneously and on the same day if possible

– Ten days after a single treatment or a day after the last treatment (for those products, which should be used more than once) the scalp should be re-examined using a louse comb. If no living lice are found, the treatment should be considered as successful even if nits are still visible on the scalp. If living lice 10 days after the single treatment or day after the second day were found, the treatment should be continued, but a pediculicide with a different active ingredient should be used

– Wet combing using a conditioner is possibly a valid alternative to pediculicides for motivated parents and should be used especially for children with short or medium length hair and in those with straight and wavy hairs

– A fine-toothed louse comb can be used: a. for the diagnosis of louse infestation; b. for the prevention of louse infestation by suppressing the establishment of lice on the scalp after the initial infestation; c. as an accessory tool for every anti-louse treatment method; d. for the treatment of a long term head louse infestation; e. for verification that treatment with a pediculicide was successful; and f. for the removal of nits.

A. Human lice
B. History
C. Morphology
D. Biology
E. Epidemiology
F. Clinical picture
G. Psychological effects
H. Diagnosis
I. Treatment
J. Prevention
K. Nits and nit removal remedies
L. The role of parents
M. Myths and misconceptions
N. Legal concerns
O. General recommendations
External sources